The trench is dug down through the top soil, rock, sand or any material that would let water pass until a good clay soil layer is reached. This trench is sometimes called a cut-off trench or a key-way. It also resists under seepage on […] Drainage in earthen dams is primarily provided to bring the phreatic line (upper surface of zone of saturation) in the embankment well within the downstream face so that water does not seeps through the body of the dam. BASIC COMPONENTS OF AN EARTH DAM An earth dam consists of three basic components, i.e. The minimum depth of the core trench is a least 4 feet. The toe drain is provided at the downstream toe of the earth dam to collect seepage from horizontal filter, rock toe & through foundation and to discharge it away from the dam by suitable surface or sub surface drains. The section of toe drain should be adequate enough to carry seepage.

Reservoir drain controlled using a sluice gate incorporated within the upstream face of a concrete gravity dam. If a dam is constructed the base trench of the dam needs to start at least 2-3 feet into solid suitable material (clay, shale, or bedrock). It is achieved using the filter material at the downstream end of the earthen embankment (Fig.24.1). Clay soil material is then packed back into the trench. Intake tower at an earthen embankment dam. It is constructed by digging a trench the length of the dam. Foundation It consists of either earth or rock and provides a support for the embankment and resists both vertical and horizontal loads. The idea is this key-way doesn’t allow water to go under the dam. The key-way is the base of what is called the dam … Example of a dam with stoplogs used to control the reservoir level. Foundation Core or (membrane) Shell Transition Filter Internal Drain Toe Drain 1.

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