The name is a reference to one particular ship, MV Empire Windrush, which transported almost 500 passengers to the UK’s shores with … There was also an emergency generator. [18], In June 1944, Max Manus and Gregers Gram, members of Norwegian Independent Company 1 (a British Army sabotage and resistance unit composed of Norwegians), attached Limpet mines to Monte Rosa's hull while the ship was in Oslo harbour. Getty Windrush generation: threat of deportation from UK On 21 June 1948, 492 West Indians arrived at Tilbury Docks, Essex on the SS Empire Windrush. [60] An alternative theory was that a fractured oil pipe deposited oil onto a hot exhaust pipe. Four ships were put on standby to assist if the ship had to be abandoned. [11], Monte Rosa ran aground off Thorshavn, Faroe Islands, on 23 July 1934,[12] but was refloated the next day. A small replica of the ship plastered with newsprint was the facsimile representation in the ceremony. [40] Monte Rosa had the German Official Number 1640. The Empire Windrush, carrying some 500 settlers from Jamaica, arrived at Tilbury Dock on 22 June 1948. Around 26 hours after Empire Windrush had been abandoned, she was reached by HMS Saintes of the Royal Navy's Mediterranean Fleet 100km northwest of Algiers. The SS Empire Windrush arrived at Tilbury docks on 22 June 1948 carrying passengers from the Caribbean. On 22 June, they started to disembark at Tilbury Docks and begin their new lives in Britain. [3], Monte Rosa was 500 ft 6 in (152.55 m) long, with a beam of 65 ft 8 in (20.02 m). The ship was then towed to Copenhagen, carrying 5,000 German refugees who were fleeing from the advancing Red Army. These voyagers -- many of them from Jamaica -- … It was reported by the local press: "Mr Ivor Cummings... of the Colonial Office welfare department came on board that night with other officials to talk with them". Wed 5 Apr 2017 00.00 EDT. The Empire Windrush is associated with the arrival of Caribbean men, women and children in the UK from 22 June 1948 at Tilbury Docks, Essex. Bass Culture 70/50 – a new, four-week exhibition – explores this impact, specifically the ways Jamaican music has helped shape the UK. When Empire Windrush sailed on 24 May 1948 and anchored in the river on 21 June 1948, after 30 days at sea. At the end of the war, she was taken by the British Government as a prize of war and renamed the Empire Windrush. The Act was granting the status of citizenship to people of the commonwealth, giving them the right to live and work in Britain. A military nurse was awarded the Royal Red Cross for her role in evacuating the patients under her care. If it hadn’t been for the Second World War, the Windrush and her passengers might not have made the voyage at all. [9], The ship did not have a sprinkler system. In this year as we fight the COVID-19 epidemic, we remember that the Windrush arrived in the same year that the NHS was born and that throughout its history migrant workers have played a massive contribution to our health service. The RCAF and RAF crews claimed two torpedo hits on Monte Rosa; the ship was also struck by eight rockets and by cannon fire. They were single-reduction geared in pairs to two propellers. [citation needed], The ship was renamed in British Service. She was used as a barracks ship at Stettin, then as a troopship for the invasion of Norway in April 1940. [23], In September 1944, the vessel was damaged by another explosion, possibly from a mine. [1][2][35][36] They had been among a group of Polish people who had been living in Mexico since 1943,[35] and the Empire Windrush had called at Tampico, Mexico, in order to pick them up. [citation needed], However, the voyage was plagued with engine breakdowns and other defects, including a fire after the departure from Hong Kong. [30][39] She was discovered seven days out of Kingston. [citation needed]. Monte Rosa was named after Monte Rosa, a mountain massif located on the Swiss-Italian border and the second-highest mountain in the Alps. Those born in the West Indies who settled in the UK in this migration movement over the following years are now typically referred to as the "Windrush Generation". Photograph: Hulton Getty. [16][17], On 30 March 1944, Monte Rosa was attacked by British and Canadian Bristol Beaufighters. The Empire Windrush and the ‘Windrush Generation’ are bywords for the post-war era of mass migration from the former colonies of the British Empire to the UK. thurrock.gov.uk uses cookies to make the site simpler. [59], An inquiry into the sinking of Empire Windrush was held in London between the 21 June and 7 July 1954. 72 years ago, the ship Empire Windrush arrived at Tilbury Docks, Essex. [27][28] One passenger later recalled that demand for tickets far exceeded the supply and there was a long queue to obtain one. An advert had appeared in a Jamaican newspaper offering cheap transport on the ship for anybody who wanted to come and work in the UK. [19][18] One German Messerschmitt Bf 110 fighter was claimed shot down and two Beaufighters were lost;[20] the two crew of one aircraft were killed, the crew of the other survived to become prisoners of war. In 1948, Tilbury Docks received one of the first large groups of post-war Caribbean settlers on the ship 'Empire Windrush'. The pair had twice bluffed their way into the dock area by posing as electricians, then hid for three days as they waited for the ship to arrive. The ship was far from full, and so an opportunistic advertisement was placed in a Jamaican newspaper offering cheap transport on the ship for anybody who wanted to come and work in the UK. The British troopship HMT Empire Windrush anchored at Tilbury Docks, Essex, on 21 June 1948 carrying hundreds of passengers from the Caribbean hoping for a new life in Britain - … The wreck lies at a depth of around 2,600 m (8,500 ft). The Windrush 70th Anniversary celebrates the pioneering, Windrush generation that came to Britain. [9][54] The ships responding to Windrush's distress call were the Dutch ship MV Mentor, the British P&O Cargo liner MV Socotra, the Norwegian ship SS Hemsefjell and the Italian ships SS Taigete and SS Helschell. They have helped to shape British social, cultural and political life. Empire Windrush. WHEN the passenger liner HMT Empire Windrush docked at Port of Tilbury on the River Thames in June 1948 with hundreds of Caribbean immigrants aboard, it was a key moment in the establishment of multicultural Britain. The majority of travellers were soon on their way by train to prearranged addresses and contacts. The ship, MV Empire Windrush, arrived at Tilbury Docks in Essex, officially carrying 492 Caribbean passengers from Kingston, Jamaica, who had made the decision to travel after having been promised a better and more prosperous life in the UK… A whip-round was organised on board ship, raising £50 – enough for the fare and £4 pocket money for her. [21][self-published source?] The arrival of West Indian immigrants on the Windrush was not expected by the British government, and not welcome. During World War II she was operated by the German navy as a troopship. Migration status was not a significantiss… The ship was also used to spread Nazi ideology among the German-speaking community in South America. The British Nationality Act 1948, giving the status of citizenship of the United Kingdom and Colonies (CUKC status) to all British subjects connected with the United Kingdom or a British colony, was going through parliament, and some Caribbean migrants decided to embark "ahead of the game". On the 72 nd anniversary of the arrival of HMT Empire Windrush at Tilbury Dock, the people of Southwark are grateful for Sam King MBE: his love of his community, hard work and spirit of service and the sacrifices made by him and the whole of the Windrush generation. The SS Empire Windrush arrived at Tilbury docks on 22 June 1948 carrying passengers from the Caribbean. June 22, 1948 - The Empire Windrush passenger ship docked at Tilbury from Jamaica. She was captured by the British at the end of the war and renamed the Empire Windrush. An era defined by the single iconic image of the ship arriving at Tilbury Dock on 22nd June 1948, its stern anchor framed by the expectant faces of the country’s newest immigrants. – in service with the United Kingdom Government during and after World War 2 had names prefixed with the word Empire (if the ship was built in Britain, borrowed or seized as a war prize). Photograph: Hulton Getty. In 1933, the new German ambassador, Baron Edmond von Thermann (in German), arrived in Argentina on the Monte Rosa. All varieties of merchant ships – cargo vessels, tankers, tugs etc. Many of Empire Windrush's passengers only intended to stay for a few years. The vessel was operated for the British Government by the New Zealand Shipping Company, and made one voyage only to the Caribbean before resuming normal trooping voyages. But by providing modestly priced cruises, Hamburg Süd was able to profitably cater to a large new clientele. H.M.T. He disembarked in front of an enthusiastic crowd wearing an SS uniform; he would spend his time in office actively proselytising Nazi ideology. Empire Windrush by Aqsa, 7L . After the devastating effects of war,Britain was looking to rebuild its workforce, and offered work permits tocolonies (and allies) in hopes of rebuilding the economy. The 'Grays and Tilbury Gazette' newspaper reported the following week that in total 15 stowaways were discovered. [18] Despite her damage, Monte Rosa was able to reach Aarhus in Denmark on 3 April. [48] The fate of Holchu's crew remains unknown and the incident is cited in several works on Ufology and the Bermuda Triangle. 1948 marked a change, as passenger berths to England were advertised. Believe it or not, very few of the migrants intended to stay in Britain for more than a few years. They were invited by Britain to assist with post-war reconstruction. [32] The name Windrush as a result come to be used as shorthand for West Indian migration, and by extension for the beginning of modern British multiracial society. In June 1948, a ship docked at Tilbury, Essex, and changed the United Kingdom forever. Despite this, Hamburg Süd remained confident in the design and quickly ordered two more ships, the MV Monte Pascoal and the MV Monte Rosa. The 492 passengers were temporarily housed near Brixton in … This was used for British troopships and could stand for His Majesty's Troopship, His Majesty's Transport[6][7] or Hired Military Transport. [38] There were also the calypso musicians Lord Kitchener, Lord Beginner, Lord Woodbine and Mona Baptiste. However they were only able to fight the fire for a few minutes before the loss of electrical power stopped the water pumps that fed their fire hoses. They first arrived aboard the Empire Windrush in June 1948, landing at Tilbury Docks, about 20 miles from London. PHOTO: GETTY IMAGES PHOTO: GETTY IMAGES On a cloudy Tuesday in June, 72 years ago, the HMT Empire Windrush (originally the MV Monte Rosa passenger liner and cruise ship) completed its 8,000 mile crossing from the Caribbean to finally dock at Tilbury in Essex. [9], At 6:23 am, the first distress calls were transmitted; further SOS calls used the emergency radio transmitter as electrical power had been lost. He notes the explosion happened at 5 am, and states that around 200 on board were trapped and drowned as the ship's captain closed the watertight bulkhead doors to control flooding and stop the ship from sinking. [47] Holchu was carrying a cargo of rice and was in good condition aside from a broken mast. [9] The ship quickly lost all electrical power as the four main electrical generators were located in the burning engine room; the backup generator was started, but problems with the main circuit breaker made its power unusable. The Empire Windrush’s voyage from the Caribbean to Tilbury took place in 1948. [64][65], Windrush carried four, oil-burning, four-stroke single-acting MAN diesel engines of 6,880 horsepower (5,130 kW) total. About 23 nautical miles off the coast of Algeria, 2,800 metres beneath the surface of the Mediterranean sea, sleeps a monument to British history. [9] However, they were quickly picked up by Windrush's lifeboats and also by a boat from the first rescue ship, which reached the scene at 7.00 am. In 1942, she was one of several ships used for the deportation of Norwegian Jewish people,[15] carrying a total of 46 people from Norway to Denmark, including the Polish-Norwegian businessman and humanitarian Moritz Rabinowitz. The first two ships (MV Monte Sarmiento and MV Monte Olivia) were built for that purpose with single-class passenger accommodation of 1,150 in cabins and 1,350 in dormitories. Three days before the ship arrived, Arthur Creech Jones, the Secretary of State for the Colonies, wrote a Cabinet memorandum noting that the Jamaican Government could not legally prevent people from departing, and the British government could not legally prevent them from landing. The ship was assessed at 13,882 GRT, 7,788 NRT. The Empire Windrush was … National Official Numbers are different to IMO Numbers. [10], Monte Rosa's entry into service came just as the Great Depression was causing a serious downturn in Hamburg Sud's cruise business. Thurrock Borough's motto on its Coat of Arms, adopted in 1957, reflects the importance of the River Thames and Tilbury Docks role in world trade and communication with: It is interesting to note that Thurrock has received a number of migrations of peoples from the Bronze Age Beaker people from across the North sea, Romans, Saxons ('Thurrock' is a Saxon word), Normans (Grays is named after the Norman Knight Henry De Grey), Dutch sea wall builders and more recently Czechoslovakian shoe manufacturers in 1930s. The Empire Windrush arrived at Tilbury on 22 June 1948, carrying 493 passengers from Jamaica wishing to start a new life in the United Kingdom. At the start of World War II, Monte Rosa was allocated for military use. Believe it or not, very few of the migrants intended to stay in Britain for more than a few years. However he stated the government was opposed to this immigration and all possible steps would be taken by the Colonial Office and the Jamaican Government to discourage it. Although a number did return the majority remained to settle permanently. June 22, 1948 - The Empire Windrush passenger ship docked at Tilbury from Jamaica. The 492 passengers were temporarily housed near Brixton in … Discover how it changed London forever. The Empire Windrush, a ship that brought the first wave of Commonwealth Caribbean immigrants from Jamaica to Tilbury Docks in Essex on 22 June 1948, signified the beginnings of a postwar multicultural Britain. George Isaacs, the Minister of Labour, stated in Parliament that there would be no encouragement for others to follow their example. The Empire Windrush was also a troop-ship initially, carrying service personnel to and from locations around the World. Originally a German cruise ship, the ship was seized by the Nazi regime and used to transport troops during the Second World War. [1], The ship also carried 66 people whose last country of residence was Mexico – they were a group of Polish people who had travelled from Siberia via India and the Pacific, and who had been granted permission to settle in the United Kingdom under the terms of the Polish Resettlement Act 1947. Monte Cervantes sank near Tierra del Fuego in 1930. [52] It took 10 weeks to reach Port Said, from where the ship sailed for the last time. After it docked, they paddled out to her from their hiding place on an inflatable rubber boat and attached their mines. [5], The Monte-Class ships were named after mountains in Europe or South America. The 492 passengers were temporarily housed near Brixton … It refers to the ship MV Empire Windrush, which docked in Tilbury on 22 June 1948, bringing workers from Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and other islands, to help fill post-war UK labour shortages. The 22nd June 1948 was the historic date in Jamaican emigration, that a former German ship, captured by the British at the end of the war, sailed into England. Windrush settlers arrive in Britain, 1948 – treasures of The National Archives (UK). [56][57] A Royal Air Force Avro Shackleton from 224 Squadron assisted in the rescue. [55], While the ship's 22 lifeboats could accommodate all on board, thick smoke and the lack of electrical power prevented many of them from being launched. The Windrush generation refers to the half a million people who came to the UK from the Caribbean between 1948 and 1971. The day is named after the Empire Windrush, a ship that docked near London in 1948 carrying the first cohort of migrants from the Caribbean who … On board were young men and women eager to put much needed elbow grease into the British economy. Wed 5 Apr 2017 00.00 EDT. The arrival of EmpireWindrush at Tilbury Dock in 1948, carryingformer servicemen and others interested in work opportunities,marked the beginnings of significantmigration of Caribbean commonwealth citizens. Where did the Empire Windrush dock, when it arrived in England on 21 June 1948? Although the passengers were placed in the lifeboats, they were not launched and the ship was subsequently towed back to Gibraltar. On display at Ambika P3 gallery in London, the show marks 70 years since the arrival of Empire Windrush at Tilbury Dock, Essex, and 50 years since the advent of British reggae. Each country developed its own official numbering system, some on a national and some on a port-by-port basis, and the formats have sometimes changed over time. [51], Empire Windrush set off from Yokohama, Japan, in February 1954 on what proved to be her final voyage. Discover how it changed London forever. When she left, I looked out to the dock and now saw only small dots, and finally we disappeared into the fog. A Bermuda link to a Caribbean influx to Britain 70 years ago has surfaced after a scandal erupted in the UK about the treatment of the emigrants. Its first use was as one of Hitler's "Strength through joy" ships and named the SS Santa Rosa. The first two to be launched Monte Sarmiento and Monte Olivia were in fact the first large diesel-powered passenger ships to see service with a German operator. The stowaways served brief prison sentences, but were eligible to remain in the United Kingdom on their release. This day in March 1954. [3], The five Monte-class vessels were diesel-powered motor ships, with four 1,436 nhp four-stroke diesel engines driving two propellers. They were sent to Grays Magistrates Courts that week and fined £1 for the first charge, of travelling on a vessel without having paid their fare, and the second for secreting themselves on board. [32][33][34] However, the ship's records, kept in the United Kingdom National Archives, indicate conclusively that 802 passengers gave their last place of residence as a country in the Caribbean. They were taken to Gibraltar by the aircraft carrier HMS Triumph, and from there returned to the United Kingdom by air. [3], During the 1920s, Hamburg Süd believed there would be a lucrative business in carrying German immigrants to South America (see German Argentine). It was a big troop boat Empire Windrush and you have lots of soldiers, and lots of people coming to England, and the reason why it took such a long time, was something happened to one of the engines. The passengers (including one stowaway) were the first large group of West Indian immigrants to the UK after the Second World War. Many former servicemen took this opportunity to return to Britain with the hopes of finding better employment including in some cases rejoining the RAF; others decided to make the journey just to see what the "mother country" was like. [26] Monte Pascoal was damaged by an air-raid on Wilhelmshaven in February 1944. They had learned the ship was to carry 3,000 German troops back to Germany and their purpose was to sink her during the trip. Those that took us out to the Suez Canal Zone, but better still, brought us back home again", "Windrush engineer warned that ship was unsafe – archive, 1954", "Recovering Windrush: The deep-sea hunt for a new monument to British history", "The mission to raise the anchor from a shipwreck – as a monument to the generation it brought to Britain", "LLOYD'S REGISTER, NAVIRES A VAPEUR ET A MOTEURS (RHWF)", "LLOYD'S REGISTER, NAVIRES A VAPEUR ET A MOTEURS (DIDU)", Oral history of passengers on the Windrush from BBC history, Passenger List from the Public Record Office, Board of Trade 'Inwards passenger lists, 1948' Subseries within BT 26 Record Summary. The ship became iconic and closely associated with ‘coloured immigration’ which was the label given by both Labour and Conservative Governments. Tilbury Docks was opened in 1886, opening the way for trading goods and operating passenger services with connections to the rest of the world. Empire Windrush One misty morning in June 1948 a former German cruise boat, the Empire Windrush, steamed up the Thames to the Tilbury Dock, London, where she disembarked some 500 hopeful settlers from Kingston, Jamaica: 492 was the official figure, but there were several stowaways as well. [26][11], Monte Rosa was renamed HMT Empire Windrush on 21 January 1947, for use on the Southampton–Gibraltar–Suez–Aden–Colombo–Singapore–Hong Kong route, with voyages extended to Kure in Japan after the start of the Korean War. [9] As the ship was government property, she was not insured. On 21 June 1948, 492 West Indians arrived at Tilbury Docks, Essex on the SS Empire Windrush. [18] The attacking force consisted of nine aircraft from Royal Air Force (RAF) 144 Squadron, five of which carried torpedoes; and nine aircraft from Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) 404 Squadron, all armed with armour-piercing RP-3 rockets. The Paper welcomed the sons and daughters from the 'Empire,' but this welcome did not permeate across all of society. The British Nationality Act 1948 was going through parliament, when the Empire Windrush, docked in Kingston, Jamaica, to pick up servicemen who were on leave. Monte-class passenger ships (in German) that were built by Blohm & Voss in Hamburg between 1924 and 1931 for Hamburg Süd (Hamburg South American Steam Shipping Company). The order was given to wake the passengers and crew and assemble them at their emergency stations, but the ship's public address system was not working, nor were its air and steam whistles, so the order had to be transmitted by word of mouth. [3] The ships' top speed was 14 knots (26 km/h) (around half the speed of the large trans-Atlantic Ocean liners of the era) but this was considered adequate for both the immigrant and cruise business. The event prompted debates in Parliament about the immigrants being allowed to settle in the country, and the ship's arrival marked an important moment in modern British history. [24], On 16 February 1945, Monte Rosa was damaged by a mine explosion near the Hel Peninsula in the Baltic, With a flooded engine room, the ship was towed to the German-occupied Polish port of Gdynia for temporary repairs. On June 22 nd we celebrate the arrival of the Empire Windrush, a landmark event in our nation’s story. Seventy years ago today—June 22, 1948—a passenger ship carrying 492 Jamaican immigrants arrived in Essex, London. Many of the travelers were ex-servicemen, who had served in England during the war. Image caption: The Empire Windrush arrived at Tilbury Docks, Essex, on 22 June 1948. [9], At around 6:15 am on Sunday 28 March, there was a sudden explosion and fierce fire in the engine room that killed the third engineer, two other members of the engine-room crew and the first electrician; a fifth crew member in the engine room and one in the boiler room, both greasers, managed to escape. In British service, she continued to be used as a troopship until March 1954, when the vessel caught fire and sank in the Mediterranean Sea with the loss of four crew. [4] The use of diesel engines reflected the experience Blohm & Voss had gained by building diesel-powered U-boats during World War I. Which world leader is currently residing at 24 Sussex Drive? She called at Kure and was to sail to the United Kingdom, calling at Hong Kong, Singapore, Colombo, Aden and Port Said. During the manoeuvre, a bottle of champagne was hoisted from the Monte Rosa to the airship. At that time, there were no immigration restrictions for citizens of one part of the British Empire moving to another part. Odd Claus [no], a Norwegian boy with German parents who was being forcibly taken to Germany, was one of those on board when this happened. The event prompted debates in Parliament about the immigrants being allowed to settle in the country, and the ship's arrival marked an important moment in modern British history. She was operated as part of the state-owned Kraft durch Freude (Strength Through Joy) programme, which provided leisure activities and cheap holidays. [citation needed], In 1948, Empire Windrush, which was en route from Australia to Britain via the Atlantic, docked in Kingston, Jamaica, to pick up servicemen who were on leave. 70 years ago, on 21 June 1948, the former German cruise liner HMT Empire Windrush arrived in the UK at Tilbury Docks, Essex carrying passengers from the West Indies. [54] All the passengers were saved and the only fatalities were the four crew killed in the engine room.[53]. Academy Visiting Instructor, and dear friend Roy Gollop, shared his friend’s moving account of the day they woke up to find themselves on a sinking ship, The Empire Windrush. In 1948, Empire Windrush, which was en route from Australia to England via the Atlantic, docked in Kingston, Jamaica, to pick up servicemen who were on leave. Empire Windrush, under the name MV Monte Rosa, was the last of five almost identical In the event, the immigrant trade was less than expected and the two ships were repurposed as cruise ships, operating in Northern European waters, the Mediterranean and around South America. In 1946, she was filled with chemical bombs and scuttled by the British in the Skagerrak. [18] The ship was traveling south, escorted by two flak ships, a destroyer and by German fighters. Two ships were sunk in Kiel harbour by separate wartime air-raids, Monte Sarmiento in February 1942 and Monte Olivia in April 1945. Grays Park and Beach in Victorian and Edwardian times, Tilbury passenger landing stage opening ceremony, Tilbury Riverside station and landing stage. The local reporters observed the fashion of the men with 'dazzling tie designs' and another member of the crew remembers that while on board, many made up some pretty nifty trousers in 'Zoot suit style'. [49][50] [1], Of the other passengers, 119 were from Britain and 40 from other parts of the world. On a cloudy Tuesday in June, 72 years ago, the HMT Empire Windrush (originally the MV Monte Rosa passenger liner and cruise ship) completed its 8,000 mile crossing from the Caribbean to finally dock at Tilbury in Essex. [9], Many of the crew and troops on board abandoned the ship by climbing down ladders or ropes and jumping into the sea. An era defined by the single iconic image of the ship arriving at Tilbury Dock on 22nd June 1948, its stern anchor framed by the expectant faces of the country’s newest immigrants. First called Monte Rosa, it was converted to a troopship and renamed HMT Empire Windrush in 1947. She was later used as an accommodation and recreational ship attached to the battleship Tirpitz, stationed in the north of Norway, from where Tirpitz and her flotilla attacked the Allied convoys en route to Russia. Within a month, nearly all had found jobs and accommodation. She was used as a barracks ship at Stettin, then as a troopship for the invasion of Norway in April 1940. 4 SCSA diesel engines (Blohm & Voss, Hamburg), double reduction geared driving two propellers. [1][2] 802 of these passengers gave their last country of residence as somewhere in the Caribbean: of these, 693 intended to settle in the United Kingdom. Attempts to close all watertight doors using the controls on the bridge had also failed. These African-Caribbeans who came "with hope in their eyes' were the beginning of the modern history of Black people in the United Kingdom (UK). June 22, 1948 - The Empire Windrush passenger ship docked at Tilbury from Jamaica. [9], Official Numbers are ship identifier numbers assigned to merchant ships by their country of registration. [22] The mines detonated when the ship was near Øresund, damaging the hull; she remained afloat and returned to harbour under her own power. Those who had not already arranged accommodation were temporarily housed in the Clapham South deep shelter in south-west London, less than a mile away from the Coldharbour Lane Employment Exchange in Brixton, where some of the arrivals sought work. [citation needed], The attack took place close to the Norwegian island of Utsira. Many of the travelers were ex-servicemen, who had served in England during the war. 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